Kidney Failure in Dogs
The kidneys are part of the urinary system and play a vital role in keeping your dog free of toxins and waste that can accumulate in the body. They eliminate waste, maintain the correct balance of water and electrolytes, produce hormones necessary to maintain blood pressure, produce blood cells, absorb salts, and process vitamin D. If one or both kidneys malfunction, it can lead to kidney failure than can be acute or chronic kidney failure.
Kidney failure occurs when the kidneys are no longer able to remove waste products from the blood, or when a blockage in the urinary system causes dangerous levels of toxic waste to build in the blood. Failure takes place so slowly that symptoms may not become obvious until extensive damage is done.
Acute (sudden) kidney failure occurs most often in younger pets, however it can affect dogs of any age. Acute kidney disease occurs suddenly and usually results from sudden damage to the kidney. It can also develop when toxic chemicals are consumed by your dog or build up in their body as a result of an abnormal condition. Mild kidney disease often goes undetected, however repeated episodes can lead to chronic kidney disease.
Other causes include low blood pressure, low blood volume, heart failure, and medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory mediations and drugs used to treat dogs with heart disease. Renal causes, involving direct damage to the kidneys, include intrinsic kidney disease, kidney trauma, congenital disorders, cancer, infections, and toxins (such as antifreeze or poisonous plants) that attack the kidneys when ingested. When this occurs the organs become inflamed and scared and the critical filtering activity of the kidneys is weakened.
You may notice your dog drinking more water, however this does not mean they are adequately hydrated and it is important you provide a constant supply of water.
Chronic (long term) kidney failure also known as chronic renal failure (CRF) occurs gradually over months and years and can cause severe damage that prevents the kidneys from functioning properly. Chronic renal failure disease is one of the most prevalent ailments affecting dogs. It is most prevalent in dogs six and older, but also affects 10 per cent of older dogs.
In the early stages, no symptoms can be detected, however in latter stages you may notice your pet drinking and urinating more frequently. As the disease progresses, symptoms may include vomiting, depression, loss of appetite, weight loss, dehydration, mouth sores, and diarrhea.
Chronic kidney disease is classified into four stages. Symptoms show up in stage three and four when the kidneys are working at 25% of their usual capacity. The disease goes unnoticed for so long that damage to the kidneys is permanent, however proper treatment can improve your dog's quality of life.
No symptoms are detectable in the early stages of the disease, however in latter stages you may notice some, or all, of the following:
Symptoms of Kidney Failure in Dogs
- increased thirst (water consumption)
- frequent urination
- poor appetite
- weight loss
- sores in the mouth
Avoid processed pet foods in favour of balanced homemade food free of preservatives. It is also important to ensure your dog's teeth are cleaned regularly as oral bacteria can travel through the body and cause kidney damage. It is important to make regular visits to your vet, especially if your dog is diagnosed with a kidney disorder.